Chlamydia (per 100,000)
Number of reported chlamydia cases
All persons in reporting areas
Caveats and Limitations
Increases in reported infections over time may reflect the expansion of chlamydia screening, use of increasingly sensitive diagnostic tests, increased emphasis on case reporting from providers and laboratories, and improvement in the information systems for reporting, as well as true increases in disease.
Nationally notifiable STD surveillance data are collected and compiled from reports sent to CDC's Division of STD Prevention by the STD control programs and health departments in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, selected cities, U.S. dependencies and possessions, and independent nations in free association with the United States. STD morbidity data presented in this indicator are compiled from electronic data received through the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS).
- As of 2000, all 50 states and the District of Columbia had regulations requiring the reporting of chlamydia cases.
Postcensal population estimates are estimates made for the years following a census, before the next census has been taken. National postcensal population estimates are derived annually by updating the resident population enumerated in the decennial census using a components of population change approach. Each annual series includes estimates for the current data year and revised estimates for the earlier years in the decade. The U.S. Census Bureau also produces postcensal estimates of the resident population for each state and county by using a component of population change method at the county level. An additional component of population change, net internal migration, is involved. The state population estimates are produced by summing all county populations within each state. The Census Bureau has annually produced a postcensal series of estimates of the July 1 resident population of the United States based on Census 2000 by applying the components of change methodology to the Modified Race Data Summary file. So that the race data for 2000-based postcensal estimates will be comparable with race data on vital records, the Census Bureau has applied the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) bridging methodology to each 31-race-group postcensal series of population estimates to obtain bridged-race postcensal estimates (estimates for the four single-race categories: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, black, and white).Vital rates for 2000 were calculated using the bridged-race April 1, 2000, census counts, and vital rates for 2001 and beyond were calculated using bridged-race estimates of the July 1 population from the corresponding postcensal vintage. Intercensal population estimates are estimates made for the years between two censuses and are produced once the decennial census at the end of the decade has been completed. They replace the postcensal estimates that were produced prior to the completion of the census at the end of the decade. Intercensal estimates are more accurate than postcensal estimates because they are based on both the census at the beginning and the census at the end of the decade and thus correct for the error of closure (the difference between the estimated population at the end of the decade and the census count for that date).
Data Source Methodology
The following formula is used to derive the estimates for a given year from those for the previous year, starting with the decennial census enumerated resident population as the base: Resident population+ Births to U.S. resident women - Deaths to U.S. residents+ Net international migration. The postcensal estimates are consistent with official decennial census figures and do not reflect estimated decennial census under-enumeration. Estimates for the earlier years in a given series are revised to reflect changes in the components of change data sets (for example, births to U.S. resident women from a preliminary natality file are replaced with counts from a final natality file). To help users keep track of which postcensal estimate is being used, each annual series is referred to as a vintage and the last year in the series is used to name the series. For example, the Vintage 2001 postcensal series has estimates for July 1, 2000, and July 1, 2001, and the Vintage 2002 postcensal series has revised estimates for July 1, 2000, and July 1, 2001, as well as estimates for July 1, 2002. The estimates for July 1, 2000, and for July 1, 2001, from the Vintage 2001 and Vintage 2002 postcensal series, differ. Vital rates that were calculated using postcensal population estimates are routinely revised when intercensal estimates become available.
STD Surveillance System (STDSS)
Surveillance information on the incidence and prevalence of STDs is used to inform public and private health efforts to control these diseases. Case reporting data are available for nationally notifiable chanchroid, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Surveillance of other STDs, such as genital herpes, simplex virus, genital warts, or other human papillomavirus infections and trichomoniasis are based on estimates of office visits to physicians' office practices provided by the National Disease and Therapeutic Index.
Data Source Methodology
Information is obtained from the following data sources: (a) case reports from STD project areas; (b) prevalence data from the Regional Infertility Prevention Project, the National Job Training Program, the Corrections STD Prevalence Monitoring Projects, and Men Who Have Sex With Men Prevalence Monitoring Project; (c ) sentinel surveillance of gonococcal antimicrobial resistance from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project; and (d) national sample surveys implemented by federal and private organizations. STD data are submitted to CDC on a variety of hard-copy summary reporting forms (monthly, quarterly, and annually) and in electronic summary or individual case-specific (line-listed) formats via the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance.